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The businessman's tool is values; the bureaucrat's tool is fear." —Novelist and philosopher Ayn Rand Once when my son was about 6 or 7 I took him to the circus with some of his friends.
The acrobats, clowns, and lion tamer in the center ring enthralled the other kids. He turned to me and said, “How do you think they make money producing a circus?
"Of all tyrannies, a tyranny sincerely exercised for the good of its victims may be the most oppressive.
It would be better to live under robber barons than under omnipotent moral busybodies.
When paying for purchases of supplies, services, or construction, the GSA Smart Pay solution provides your agency with numerous benefits including cost savings, discount programs, and refunds. In accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.301, the government wide commercial purchase payment solution is authorized for use in making and/or paying for purchases of supplies, services, or construction.
As an purchase account holder for your agency/ organization, you will be able to decide what to purchase, when to buy it, and from whom.
Discovery is the process of uncovering relevant facts through identifying witnesses, documents, and other items that can lead to establishing those facts as admissible evidence.
Pre-litigation investigation is covered in Chapter 4.1 of this MANUAL. The Scope of Allowable Discovery The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure specify the general parameters of allowable discovery in a lawsuit. Parties may obtain discovery regarding any non-privileged matter that is relevant to any party's claim or defense, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any documents or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons who know of any discoverable matter.
Within days after the Islamic State conquered the city of Sirte in Libya two years ago, enormous billboards appeared in the Islamist stronghold warning women they must wear baggy robes that cover their entire bodies, and no perfume.The robber baron's cruelty may sometimes sleep, his cupidity may at some point be satiated; but those who torment us for our own good will torment us without end for they do so with the approval of their own conscience." —C. Lewis (1898–1963) “I predict future happiness for Americans if they can prevent the government from wasting the labors of the people under the pretense of taking care of them.” —Thomas Jefferson “It is not the function of our Government to keep the citizen from falling into error.It is the function of the citizen to keep the government from falling into error.” —Supreme Court Justice Robert H.The deposition-discovery procedure simply advances the stage at which the disclosure can be compelled from the time of trial to the period preceding it, thus reducing the possibility of surprise.2 The Court has reiterated this broad standard, stating that it “has more than once declared that the deposition-discovery rules are to be accorded a broad and liberal treatment to effect their purpose of adequately informing the litigants in civil trials.”3 At the same time, the Court has also directed that the requirement of relevance of material sought in discovery should be “firmly applied.”4 Rule 26(b)(1) reflects these competing considerations. First, unless limited by court order, parties are entitled to discover “any nonprivileged matter that is relevant to any party's claim or defense.” The practical scope of discovery is broad, as it includes “the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any documents or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons who know of any discoverable matter.” Second, upon a showing of “good cause,” parties may seek the intervention of the court to attempt to broaden the scope of discovery beyond matters relevant to claims or defenses, to “any matter relevant to the subject matter involved in the action.” Third, whether pertinent to claims or defenses or to the subject matter of the case, “relevant information” is not circumscribed by evidence that will be admissible at trial, as long as “the discovery appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence.”5 The initial standard of presumptively allowable discovery relevant to claims and defenses and the need for parties to seek court intervention, upon a showing of good cause, to expand this scope to matters relevant to the subject matter of the action reflects a compromise between the competing claims of discovery being either overbroad or necessary to develop the case.6 There is no precise dividing line between discovery that is relevant to either claims or defenses, or to the subject matter of the action.The good cause assessment is “meant to be flexible,” and will depend on the circumstances of the pending action.7 For example, information about “other incidents of the same type,” although “not directly pertinent to the incident in suit,” could still be considered relevant to the claims or defenses raised in the action. implemented a two–tiered discovery process; the first tier being attorney–managed discovery of information relevant to any claim or defense of a party, and the second being court–managed discovery that can include information relevant to the subject matter of the action.